India’s parliamentary election is the largest in the world, with 543 constituencies and well over 1 million voters per constituency on the average, and voting is conducted electronically since 2004. However, there is considerable doubt about the integrity of both the Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) used by the Election Commission of India (ECI) and the procedure for maintaining and updating voters lists.
We analyse the ECI solutions from the points of view of verifiability and compliance with democratic principles. We also investigate the possibility of end-to-end verifiable electronic voting that can support voter-verified paper audit trails in a closely coupled manner.
- A strongly software independent verifiable voting system. Prashant Agrawal, Subodh Sharma, Subhashis Banerjee. 2021 (Communicated)
Citizens’ Commission on Elections’ Report on EVMs and VVPAT. Madan Lokur, Wajahat Habibullah, Hariparanthaman, Arun Kumar, Subhashis Banerjee, Pamela Philipose, John Dayal, Sundar Burra and M. G. Devasahayam. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 57, Issue No. 3, 15 Jan, 2022. (https://www.epw.in/journal/2022/3/perspectives/citizens’-commission-elections’-report-evms-and.html)
- Blockchain vs public bulletin boards for integrity of elections and electoral rolls. Prashant Agrawal, Subodh Sharma, Subhashis Banerjee. The India Forum, August, 2021. (https://www.theindiaforum.in/article/blockchain-vs-public-bulletin-board-integrity-elections-and-electoral-rolls)